section presents a brief description of the main works recorded
in videotape. The chart bellow sorts these works out, in a schematic
way, according to their main purpose, to whom requested them and
to what public they are directed. The research methodology employed
is indicated under techniques. Since these works were
meant to become films, the collection of data for research and scripting
of each experience is blended in a so-called pre-script or film
project. In visual feedback we indicate how the recorded
images were used in the films presentation, both in relation
to the group dynamics technique or video-feedback. The film was
edited as a means of sensitizing people and exchanging experiences.
films Sinuelo (1985) and Maria Maria (1986) were made upon request
by UNESCO and resulted in videotapes. The video-feedback technique
has been used for the first time in a meeting with maids from the
city of Rio de Janeiro. It was documented in the film Maria Maria
and described in a report to Unesco.
FOR THE CREATION OF A SCRIPT OR PRE-SCRIPT FOR PRODUCTION OF VIDEOTAPES
BASED ON FIELD RESEARCH
steps listed below refer to a videotape filmed as research documentation
in the Brazilian small town of Coronel Xavier Chaves in Minas Gerais,
in 2001. Eleven years ago a participative research had been conducted
in the same town, concerning the women artisans cultural memory
and body language. This is an example of how we documented our work
so as to help other researchers interested in documenting their
ASSOCIATION OF WOMENs ARTISANS - EMBROIDERY -> PRE-TEXT
-> To indicate the DEVELOPMENT AND PARTICIPATION COMMUNITY
Embroiderers Association and its participative movement
in the community work as Pre-text to indicate what the film intends
to show, especially in relation to the discussion on development.
is a key moment for discussion with field teams and researchers.
It is necessary to prepare a script, which will contain all the
different elements presented during each step.
researcher must be alert during interviews to "invisible"
elements and to local culture accounts, identifying how the community
leadership may generate new actions, and at the same time, noticing
the emergence of new elements.
order to work with the Cultural Imagery of Key Issues, the following
should be taken into consideration:
Representation of the issues under question to both the interviewed
people and the researchers;
The trajectory of the issue according to historical sources..
is necessary, for the researcher should exercise his/her synthesis
ability, focusing aspects directly related to the situation under
previous table about the imaginary realm tries to give an overall
idea about development issues that remain as underlying questions.
This represents a parallel between the ancient catechization mission
that wished to convert natives in the name of faith and
the cooperation mission to convert or transform in the
name of reason and technology. Its focus are the women, with their
access denied to education and also to looms, during the eighteenth
century, by Portugal, of whom Brazil was a colony. The ban intended
to prevent Brazil from producing excellent quality textiles, and
was not exactly directed at women. However, in Brazil the embroidering
and weaving activities remain a female occupation.
suggest that the main ideas to be researched or addressed are
placed in a column and the corresponding images and interviews
in the other columns.
Pre-Script Subject Matter:
Imagery of Development/ Aspects of the Participants
Personal Trajectory in relation to the work theme.
with Leaders (please list main targets)
with Local Population
(Please list here all interviews)
Imagery of Development/
Local Cultural Aspectsl
(May be deepened, working with the first targets)
of Local Culture
(Please consult local calendar)
there is an example of selected extracts from the interviews,
seeking to identify the elements described in the previous steps.
The researcher must take into consideration the testimonies recorded
as interviews and images. Both the images and the interviews show
different aspects of the situation, whether reinforcing them or
pointing out contrasts or new issues.
The researcher must have done some script editing on the filmed
material, kepping special attention to time code.
OF FILM EXTRACTS CONTAINING LOCAL INTERVIEWS AND IMAGES FOR THE
1 -LOCAL IMAGES
(LOCAL LEADERS SPEECH)
(EXPLANATORY NARRATIVE ABOUT THE PLACE)
3 - LOCAL LEADER EXPLAINS THE ORIGIN OF THEIR EMBROIDERY
4 LOCAL LEADER SPEAKS ABOUT THE ASSOCIATION AND ITS
5 LOCAL WOMEN ARTISANS EXPLAIN THE TECHNIQUE
6 - LOCAL LEADER POINTS OUT THE LOCAL COMMUNITYS PARTICIPATION
7 LOCAL ARTISAN RECOUNTS HER OWN UNDERSTANDING OF
SEQ. 8 - LOCAL LEADER RECOUNTS HER PERSONAL TRAJECTORY,
WHICH REFLECTS HER COMMUNITARIAN CHOICE.
9 INTERVIEW WITH LOCAL ARTISAN
(ALREADY INTERVIEWED IN A PREVIOUS RESEARCH)
10 - LOCAL LEADER SPEAKS ABOUT CHANGE
11 - ARTISAN SPEAKS OF COOPERATION AND CHANGE
THE OLDEST ARTISAN SPEAKS ABOUT INNOVATION AND CHANGE
13 LOCAL LEADER SPEAKS ABOUT RAISING THE CONSCIOUSNESS
OF THE WOMEN
14 ANOTHER LOCAL LEADER SPEAKS ABOUT THE PARTICIPATION
OF SIMPLE HUMBLE PEOPLE
15 INTERVIEW WITH FEMALE FIELD WORKER
16 - LOCAL LEADER SPEAKS ABOUT THE DAILY LIFE OF WOMEN IN
THE CITY AND AT WORK.
17 - FEMALE FIELD WORKER
18- 2ND LOCAL LEADER SPEAKS ABOUT HER WORK COORDINATING
19- IMAGES OF THE CHOIR REHEARSING IN CHURCH
20 - LOCAL LEADER SPEAKS ABOUT INDIAN WOMEN AND THE REGIONS
HISTORY DURING THE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY.
(INSERT: ENGRAVINGS FROM THE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY SHOWING
ASPECTS AND HABITS OF THE TIME.)
21- LOCAL LEADER SPEAKS ABOUT CURRENT DEVELOPMENT.
22 INTERVIEW WITH LOCAL ARTISAN DESCRIBING THE IMPORTANCE
OF THE LEADER
23 - LOCAL LEADER GIVES HER OWN IDEA OF THE TRAJECTORY OF
THE COUNTRY, MAKING A PARALLEL WITH FEMALE WORK IN GENERALSEQ.
LOCAL LEADER DECORATES THE WINDOW WITH THE COLORS
OF THE NATIONAL FLAG FOR A PROCESSION
25- IMAGES OF WOMEN FOLLOWED BY A READING OF A PROTEST POEM
WRITTEN BY THE LOCAL LEADER.
images, presenting the theme
narrative text should not be long, but enough to make the
of the regions embroideries
OF ACTION BY DEVELOPMENT AGENT, EMPHASIZING THE TECHNIQUES
OF THE EMBROIDERIES SEQUENCE IN DIFFERENT STAGES
OF HANDS EMBROIDERING MAY BE USED, WHICH WOULD ALSO CONVEY
THE IDEA OF UNION = GIVING HANDS, (MENTIONED IN THE LEADERS
Cultural identity, local customs and local women. In the local
leaders speech we find elements delineating the idea
testimony showing what has changed: old images may be used
in contrast with what is being described.
These are extracts that indicate the changes, which took place
from one generation to the other and which reflect community
cooperation and participation.
critical aspect of participation, i.e., the process of consciousness-raising,
brings the speech of a new agent.
with the newly found female field worker: what changed for
her; her dreams and her life
OF THE LOCAL WOMENS DAILY LIFE What she says = what
she does = how much she participates
Suggestion of new local agents participation = multiplying
effect = "key words" employed in the underprivileged
Emergence of the issue of colonization and development;
of ideas about:
o PERMANENT DEVELOPMENT AND its RELATIVITY
IN the TEMPORAL DIMENSION
The idea of a developmental agent insuring continuity of the
work comes up again.
Many are the elements that appear here; only the most universal
must be selected, allowing for generalizations. In the last
images, there is the idea of the passage of time;
The selected leader appears coming out of an old house, giving
the idea of a past that is still alive, but that is slowly
being surpassed. The camera looks outside.
The poem deals with national issues. The final texts must
be carefully chosen, to reinforce the idea of contrast and
questions about what will come with development.
To make this selection it is necessary to first perform
the time coding of recorded tapes, allowing an overview
of all different speeches;
As the speeches are selected, the time codes are indicated,
identifying their right places in the tapes for editing;
Music is an important element in this work. The sound track
of a research video must be of good quality. Music that
conveys excessively intense feelings, such as joy or sadness,
or that is too fast or too slow, may jeopardize the rhythm
of the work and the conveying of ideas;
The interviews must show the interviewees facial expressions
and allow for silences and gesture pauses. The lightening
and sound track must be done as preliminary work. We expect
the good sense of not interrupting a person who is giving
his or her account, sometimes charged with emotion, in order
to repair, for example, a lightening failure. However, good
sound equipment is crucial.
This example is only one way of doing it. Each researcher
can and should exercise his/her own way of conceiving a