CASE STUDIES


This section presents a brief description of the main works recorded in videotape. The chart bellow sorts these works out, in a schematic way, according to their main purpose, to whom requested them and to what public they are directed. The research methodology employed is indicated under ‘techniques’. Since these works were meant to become films, the collection of data for research and scripting of each experience is blended in a so-called pre-script or film project. In ‘visual feedback’ we indicate how the recorded images were used in the film’s presentation, both in relation to the group dynamics technique or video-feedback. The film was edited as a means of sensitizing people and exchanging experiences.

The films Sinuelo (1985) and Maria Maria (1986) were made upon request by UNESCO and resulted in videotapes. The video-feedback technique has been used for the first time in a meeting with maids from the city of Rio de Janeiro. It was documented in the film Maria Maria and described in a report to Unesco.

STEPS FOR THE CREATION OF A SCRIPT OR PRE-SCRIPT FOR PRODUCTION OF VIDEOTAPES BASED ON FIELD RESEARCH

The steps listed below refer to a videotape filmed as research documentation in the Brazilian small town of Coronel Xavier Chaves in Minas Gerais, in 2001. Eleven years ago a participative research had been conducted in the same town, concerning the women artisans’ cultural memory and body language. This is an example of how we documented our work so as to help other researchers interested in documenting their own work.

1st step:

2nd step:


ASSOCIATION OF WOMEN’s ARTISANS - EMBROIDERY -> PRE-TEXT -> To indicate the DEVELOPMENT AND PARTICIPATION COMMUNITY Process .

The Embroiderers’ Association and its participative movement in the community work as Pre-text to indicate what the film intends to show, especially in relation to the discussion on development.

This is a key moment for discussion with field teams and researchers. It is necessary to prepare a script, which will contain all the different elements presented during each step.

3rd step :

The researcher must be alert during interviews to "invisible" elements and to local culture accounts, identifying how the community leadership may generate new actions, and at the same time, noticing the emergence of new elements.

4th setp:

In order to work with the Cultural Imagery of Key Issues, the following should be taken into consideration:

• Representation of the issues under question to both the interviewed people and the researchers;

• The trajectory of the issue according to historical sources..

Extra-care is necessary, for the researcher should exercise his/her synthesis ability, focusing aspects directly related to the situation under examination.

The previous table about the imaginary realm tries to give an overall idea about development issues that remain as underlying questions. This represents a parallel between the ancient catechization mission that wished to convert natives in the name of faith – and the cooperation mission – to convert or transform in the name of reason and technology. Its focus are the women, with their access denied to education and also to looms, during the eighteenth century, by Portugal, of whom Brazil was a colony. The ban intended to prevent Brazil from producing excellent quality textiles, and was not exactly directed at women. However, in Brazil the embroidering and weaving activities remain a female occupation.

We suggest that the main ideas to be researched or addressed are placed in a column and the corresponding images and interviews in the other columns.

Video Pre-Script Subject Matter:
Personal Imagery of Development/ Aspects of the Participant’s Personal Trajectory in relation to the work theme.
Interviews with Leaders (please list main targets)
Interview with Local Population
(Please list here all interviews)
Cultural Imagery of Development/
Local Cultural Aspectsl
Interviews with Leaders
(May be deepened, working with the first targets)
Images of Local Culture
(Festivities, dances...)
(Please consult local calendar)

5th ª step:




6th step:

Below there is an example of selected extracts from the interviews, seeking to identify the elements described in the previous steps.

The researcher must take into consideration the testimonies recorded as interviews and images. Both the images and the interviews show different aspects of the situation, whether reinforcing them or pointing out contrasts or new issues.

The researcher must have done some script editing on the filmed material, kepping special attention to time code.


EXAMPLES OF FILM EXTRACTS CONTAINING LOCAL INTERVIEWS AND IMAGES FOR THE ARTISANS’ VIDEOs

SEQ. 1 -LOCAL IMAGES
(LOCAL LEADER’S SPEECH)

SEQ. 2 – MAP
(EXPLANATORY NARRATIVE ABOUT THE PLACE)

SEQ. 3 - LOCAL LEADER EXPLAINS THE ORIGIN OF THEIR EMBROIDERY TECHNIQUE

SEQ. 4 – LOCAL LEADER SPEAKS ABOUT THE ASSOCIATION AND ITS WORK

SEQ. 5 –LOCAL WOMEN ARTISANS EXPLAIN THE TECHNIQUE

SEQ. 6 - LOCAL LEADER POINTS OUT THE LOCAL COMMUNITY’S PARTICIPATION

SEQ. 7 – LOCAL ARTISAN RECOUNTS HER OWN UNDERSTANDING OF PARTICIPATION

SEQ. 8 - LOCAL LEADER RECOUNTS HER PERSONAL TRAJECTORY, WHICH REFLECTS HER COMMUNITARIAN CHOICE.

SEQ. 9 – INTERVIEW WITH LOCAL ARTISAN
(ALREADY INTERVIEWED IN A PREVIOUS RESEARCH)

SEQ. 10 - LOCAL LEADER SPEAKS ABOUT CHANGE

SEQ. 11 - ARTISAN SPEAKS OF COOPERATION AND CHANGE

SEQ.12 – THE OLDEST ARTISAN SPEAKS ABOUT INNOVATION AND CHANGE

SEQ. 13 – LOCAL LEADER SPEAKS ABOUT RAISING THE CONSCIOUSNESS OF THE WOMEN

SEQ. 14 – ANOTHER LOCAL LEADER SPEAKS ABOUT THE PARTICIPATION OF SIMPLE HUMBLE PEOPLE

SEQ. 15 – INTERVIEW WITH FEMALE FIELD WORKER

SEQ. 16 - LOCAL LEADER SPEAKS ABOUT THE DAILY LIFE OF WOMEN IN THE CITY AND AT WORK.

SEQ. 17 - FEMALE FIELD WORKER

SEQ. 18- 2ND LOCAL LEADER SPEAKS ABOUT HER WORK COORDINATING A CHOIR

SEQ. 19- IMAGES OF THE CHOIR REHEARSING IN CHURCH

SEQ. 20 - LOCAL LEADER SPEAKS ABOUT INDIAN WOMEN AND THE REGION’S HISTORY DURING THE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY.
(INSERT: ENGRAVINGS FROM THE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY SHOWING ASPECTS AND HABITS OF THE TIME.)

SEQ. 21- LOCAL LEADER SPEAKS ABOUT CURRENT DEVELOPMENT.

SEQ. 22 – INTERVIEW WITH LOCAL ARTISAN DESCRIBING THE IMPORTANCE OF THE LEADER

SEQ. 23 - LOCAL LEADER GIVES HER OWN IDEA OF THE TRAJECTORY OF THE COUNTRY, MAKING A PARALLEL WITH FEMALE WORK IN GENERALSEQ.

24 – LOCAL LEADER DECORATES THE WINDOW WITH THE COLORS OF THE NATIONAL FLAG FOR A PROCESSION

SEQ. 25- IMAGES OF WOMEN FOLLOWED BY A READING OF A PROTEST POEM WRITTEN BY THE LOCAL LEADER.

 

 
Local images, presenting the theme

The narrative text should not be long, but enough to make the video understandable.

Images of the region’s embroideries

INTRODUCTION OF ACTION BY DEVELOPMENT AGENT, EMPHASIZING THE TECHNIQUE’S PARTICIPATIVE TRANSMISSION.

IMAGES OF THE EMBROIDERIES’ SEQUENCE IN DIFFERENT STAGES

IMAGES OF HANDS EMBROIDERING MAY BE USED, WHICH WOULD ALSO CONVEY THE IDEA OF UNION = GIVING HANDS, (MENTIONED IN THE LEADER’S SPEECH)


Cultural identity, local customs and local women. In the local leader’s speech we find elements delineating the idea of development.

Interesting testimony showing what has changed: old images may be used in contrast with what is being described.
These are extracts that indicate the changes, which took place from one generation to the other and which reflect community cooperation and participation.

The critical aspect of participation, i.e., the process of consciousness-raising, is highlighted.

This brings the speech of a new agent.

Interview with the newly found female field worker: what changed for her; her dreams and her life

IMAGES OF THE LOCAL WOMEN’S DAILY LIFE What she says = what she does = how much she participates

Suggestion of new local agents participation = multiplying effect = "key words" employed in the underprivileged universe.

TransmissionÆ Cultural Memory
Emergence of the issue of colonization and development;

Emergence of ideas about:
o GLOBALIZATION
o COLONIZATION
o PERMANENT DEVELOPMENT AND its RELATIVITY
IN the TEMPORAL DIMENSION



The idea of a developmental agent insuring continuity of the work comes up again.



Many are the elements that appear here; only the most universal must be selected, allowing for generalizations. In the last images, there is the idea of the passage of time;



The selected leader appears coming out of an old house, giving the idea of a past that is still alive, but that is slowly being surpassed. The camera looks outside.



The poem deals with national issues. The final texts must be carefully chosen, to reinforce the idea of contrast and questions about what will come with development.

 

• To make this selection it is necessary to first perform the time coding of recorded tapes, allowing an overview of all different speeches;

• As the speeches are selected, the time codes are indicated, identifying their right places in the tapes for editing;

• Music is an important element in this work. The sound track of a research video must be of good quality. Music that conveys excessively intense feelings, such as joy or sadness, or that is too fast or too slow, may jeopardize the rhythm of the work and the conveying of ideas;

• The interviews must show the interviewees’ facial expressions and allow for silences and gesture pauses. The lightening and sound track must be done as preliminary work. We expect the good sense of not interrupting a person who is giving his or her account, sometimes charged with emotion, in order to repair, for example, a lightening failure. However, good sound equipment is crucial.

• This example is only one way of doing it. Each researcher can and should exercise his/her own way of conceiving a video..